Typology Typology is a method that compares reference objects in order to classify them according to their similarity or dissimilarity and link them to a specific context or period.
This technique is frequently used when it is impossible to make use of absolute dating methods; it generally allows archaeologists to identify the period to which a cultural site or object belongs, without specifying the date of occupation.
Stratigraphic dating remains very reliable when it comes to dating objects or events in undisturbed stratigraphic levels.
For example, the oldest human remains known to date in Canada, found at Gore Creek, have been dated using soil stratification.
An initial reading dates the specimen which is then calibrated by considering this date and its correspondence with the measurable level of carbon 14 stored over time in the growth rings of certain tree species, including redwood and pine bristol.
The results of radiocarbon dating are expressed in years and include a time range (eg, 630± 60 BP).
This is the only type of techniques that can help clarifying the actual age of an object.
Absolute dating methods mainly include radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and thermoluminescence.
A sample requires 10 to 20 grams of matter and usually consists of charred organic material, mainly charcoal, but bones (zooarchaeology) and shells can also be dated using this technique.
The bones were buried under (and are therefore older) a layer of ash that resulted from a volcanic eruption dating back to 7000 years BP (Before Present; "present" indicates c. Subsequently, radiocarbon dating, an absolute dating technique, was used to date the bones directly and provided a date of 8250 BP, showing how useful the combined used of relative and absolute dating can be.
Moreover, stratigraphic dating is sometimes based on the objects that are found within the soil strata.
For those researchers working in the field of human history, the chronology of events remains a major element of reflection.
Archaeologists have access to various techniques for dating archaeological sites or the objects found on those sites.
Radiocarbon Dating Radiocarbon dating is the most widely used dating technique in archaeology.