This site is located along the Wadi Fidan, in the region of Faynan in southern Jordan. The Hebrew Bible does not name him, referring to him only as “the King of Aram” in 1 Kings 22:3, 31; 2 Kings chapter 5, 6:8–23. At Kurkh, a monolith by Shalmaneser III states that at the battle of Qarqar (853 B. E.), he defeated “Adad-idri [the Assyrian way of saying Hadadezer] the Damascene,” along with “Ahab the Israelite” and other kings (, p. A small Egyptian scarab containing his exact throne name, discovered as a surface find at Khirbat Hamra Ifdan, now documents his presence at or near that location. early 9th century to 844/842, 1 Kings 22:3, etc., in Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser III and also, I am convinced, in the Melqart stele. 69–85, which follows the closely allied readings of Frank Moore Cross and Gotthard G. 237, is revised to a strong identification in that stele in “Corrections,” pp. 842/841–815/814, 1 Kings , etc., in inscriptions of Shalmaneser III.
Several kings of Damascus bore the name Bar-hadad (in their native Aramaic, which is translated as Ben-hadad in the Hebrew Bible), which suggests adoption as “son” by the patron deity Hadad. 800, 1 Kings , 2 Kings 8:8, etc., is documented in four kinds of inscriptions: 1) The inscriptions of Shalmaneser III call him “Hazael of Damascus” (, pp. 732/731–722, 2 Kings , etc., in Tiglath-pileser’s Summary Inscription 4, described in preceding note 18, where Hoshea is mentioned as Pekah’s immediate successor. Sanballat “I”, governor of Samaria under Persian rule, ca. As Jan Dušek shows, it cannot be demonstrated that any Sanballat II and III existed, which is the reason for the present article’s quotation marks around the “I” in Sanballat “I”; see Jan Dušek, “Archaeology and Texts in the Persian Period: Focus on Sanballat,” in Martti Nissinen, ed., (Boston: Brill. Also, the reference to “[ ]ballat,” most likely Sanballat, in Wadi Daliyeh bulla WD 22 appears to refer to the biblical Sanballat as the father of a governor of Samaria who succeeded him in the first half of the fourth century. 884–873, 1 Kings , etc., in Assyrian inscriptions and in the Mesha Inscription. 873–852, 1 Kings , etc., in the Kurkh Monolith by his enemy, Shalmaneser III of Assyria.
An English translation of the bulla is: “Belonging to Heze[k]iah, [son of] ’A[h]az, king of Jud[ah]” (letters within square brackets [ ] are supplied where missing or only partly legible). As for his being perceived as pro-Babylonian, his father Ahikam had protected the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah ; cf. 1: Jerusalem, Part 1 (Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2010). 1 consists of two separately bound Parts, each a physical “book.” “Corrections” Lawrence J.